About Faiza Faisal

Faiza Faisal is a language and Reading Specialist trained in the Orto-Gillingham Approach. She is an Associate of the Academy of Orton-Gillingham Practitioners and Educators(USA) and IDA Certified Dyslexia Practitioner. She has been practicing at CARE since the year 2000. Faiza teaches students on one on one and group basis.Also, Faiza teacher trains and offers workshops/ seminars to raise awareness about learning disabilities/dyslexia and counsels students/parents/teachers on academic/psychological issues related to learning and behavior.

Behaviour Management Strategies Making connection

Behaviour Management Strategies Making connection

General tips

• Be definite – know what you want and let the children know what you expect in a calm and polite way
• Be clear about general as well as specific behaviours – lining up, entering/leaving the room, talking, doing work, listening, showing respect, trying your best
• Be aware – what will happen if you do or don’t get what you want – plan your response
• Acknowledge good behaviour and reward with specific, detailed praise
• Use proximity praise when low-level misbehaviour starts, ensuring you and the children know which sanctions apply for specific misbehaviours
• Be calm and consistent – remain polite and fair, applying school rules and sanctions consistently
• Treat the children as you would a colleague in the office
• Have a clear structure to the day or lesson – a clear pattern offers safety and security
• Be positive and keep standards high – expect the best and praise/reward those who achieve highly
• Be interested – get to know the children and form good relationships with them
• Be flexible – if your class are bored/unsettled/tired then change your plans and bend a little
• Set small targets for individuals who struggle and notice when they achieve them
• Be persistent – never give up on a child or class. Look for the solution. Behaviour takes time to change.

Behaviour matters- How literate is your school?

Controlling the class

• Learn to ‘read’ the class – be flexible and adapt your approach according to their behaviour
• Wait for silence – expect complete attention to be focussed on you. Use non-verbal techniques to gain this – stand, look and wait; pause and wait; use an egg timer, bell, clapping or shaker; hands up or on heads; establish a phrase ‘may I have your attention please…’
• Use cues – remind the children of the rules as pat of your instruction – ‘Put your hands up if you know..’, ‘When I say ‘go’ you can start your work..’
• Give them the choice – make choices and consequences simple and clear and follow through on these
• Be reasonable but don’t reason with them- have realistic expectations about what children can do and there will be no need to reason when you ask them to do it
• Use statements, not questions – say what you want to happen instead of asking why it isn’t – ‘Why are you messing around’ becomes ‘I want you to sit properly and listen’
• Use repetition – to gain attention and to ensure your message is heard and understood, repeat the child’s name until you have their full attention and repeat instructions to ensure understanding

Strategies for Children who need to be in control/are seeking revenge

• Stay calm yourself – avoid a power struggle
• For off-task behaviour, redirect the child and then walk away, expecting the work to be resumed. This avoids confrontation and the child saves face.
• Too much obvious praise too soon will have the opposite effect as the child doesn’t want to please you or appear to conform. Delay praise, keep it subtle – a nod or a smile will reinforce acceptable behaviour or a quiet word. Avoid audiences.
• Special responsibilities are a controlled way of giving the child some power – supporting younger peers in successful subjects will reinforce acceptable behaviour whilst making the child feel important.
• Rephrase what you say – use ‘you are working well instead of ‘I’m pleased with you.’ This gives control to the child – you are recognising their positive choices.
• Keep boundaries firm and consistent. Discuss and negotiate rules to involve the child and so they see the relevance to them.
• Apply consequences to the whole class and keep them logical, to avoid accusations of being ‘unfair’. Be seen to be fair and consistent.
• Be prepared to listen rather than accuse, remain positive and friendly and avoid taking the behaviour personally.
• Speak privately about inappropriate behaviour.
• Aim to reframe actions by finding positive reasons for behaviour e.g. ‘I can see you are not working yet and that you probably need more thinking time’.

Controlling behaviours

• Arguing
• Rebelling
• Defiance
• Contradiction
• Bullying
• Temper tantrums
• Dishonesty
• Disobedience

Strategies for children who show attention – needing behaviours

• Use planned ignoring/proximity praise. Ignore the child who is behaving inappropriately and praise a child nearby who is behaving appropriately.
• ‘You get the behaviour you pay attention to’ – acknowledge and reinforce appropriate behaviour.
• Sometimes do the opposite of what is expected – give the child permission to carry on – if permitted the behaviour loses its attraction. This works best when the behaviour was intended to irritate, antagonise or annoy the adult.
• Make expectations about behaviour very clear. Establish rules and boundaries and reward compliance. Use stickers, certificates and letters home.
• Develop a whole class reward system. This will encourage a feeling of belonging and working towards a common goal.
• Teach friendship skills to enable the child to make and maintain friendships.
• Express surprise at the misbehaviour.
• Pair with a good role model. Use a ‘work buddy’ system.
• Make them feel valued by organising a special job or responsibility.
• Teach child new skills – juggling/playing an instrument – to achieve a valued role.
• Label the behaviour and not the child to keep self-esteem intact. Use ‘I’ statements and acknowledge feelings. E.g. ‘When you talk during story I feel irritated and the other children can’t hear the story…’
• Teach all of the children to use ‘I’ statements: ‘I like you but I don’t like it when you push in…’
• Offer consequences for chosen misbehaviour – this makes children responsible for their behaviour and takes the stress of failure away from the adult. E.g. ‘If you continue to talk you will be moved, the choice is yours.’
• Take an interest in the child and their hobbies. Share relevant information about common interests.
• Use circle time activities to encourage cooperative group work and place problems in a social context. Foster a sense of belonging where every member is valued and valuable. Create an environment where it is safe to take risks and make mistakes.
• Introduce a special person once a week in circle time to provide an opportunity for celebrating individual strengths.
• Give as much individual praise as possible – just for being themselves.
• Extend feelings vocabulary so the child can express their needs clearly.
• Plan for success and celebrate when it happens.
• Focus on the children’s abilities and strengths – stay solution focussed.

Attention-needing behaviours

•Continuous behaviour that demands excessive attention from adults and peers
• Frequently disturbs adults and peers
• Talks out of turn
• Makes silly noises
• Constantly gets out of seat
• Interrupts lessons with attention-needing behaviour
• Works only when receiving attention

Carolyn Bromfield – University of Plymouth Trudi Fitzhenry – EPBST
Sue Cowley – ‘Getting the buggers to behave’
Continuum International Publishing Group 2006

Multisensory Teaching

Multisensory Teaching

What is meant by multisensory teaching?

Multisensory teaching is simultaneously visual, auditory, and kinesthetic-tactile to enhance memory and learning. Links are consistently made between the visual (what we see), auditory (what we hear), and kinesthetic-tactile (what we feel) pathways in learning to read and spell.

Margaret Byrd Rawson, a former President of The Orton Dyslexia Society (the precursor to The International Dyslexia Association), said it well: “Dyslexic students need a different approach to learning language from that employed in most classrooms. They need to be taught, slowly and thoroughly, the basic elements of their language — the sounds and the letters which represent them — and how to put these together and take them apart. They have to have lots of practice in having their writing hands, eyes, ears, and voices working together for the conscious organization and retention of their learning.”

Teachers who use this approach teach children to link the sounds of the letters with the written symbol. Children also link the sound and symbol with how it feels to form the letter or letters. As students learn a new letter or pattern (such as s or th), they carefully trace, copy, and write the letter(s) while saying the corresponding sound. The sound may be made by the teacher and the letter name(s) given by the student. Students then read and spell words, phrases, and sentences using these patterns. Teachers and their students rely on all three pathways for learning rather than focusing on a “sight-word” or memory method, a “tracing method,” or a “phonetic method” alone.
When and where was multisensory teaching introduced for children with dyslexia?

Dr. Samuel Torrey Orton and his colleagues began using multisensory techniques in the mid-1920’s at the mobile mental health clinic he directed in Iowa. Orton was influenced by the kinesthetic method described by Grace Fernald and Helen Keller. He suggested that kinesthetic-tactile reinforcement of visual and auditory associations could correct the tendency of reversing letters and transposing the sequence of letters while reading and writing. Students who reverse b and d are taught to use consistent, different strokes in forming each letter. For example, students make the vertical line before drawing the circle in printing the letter b; they form the circle before drawing the vertical line in printing the letter d.

Anna Gillingham and Bessie Stillman based their original 1936 teaching manual for the “alphabetic method” on Dr. Orton’s theories. They combined multisensory techniques with teaching the structure of written English, including the sounds (phonemes), meaning units (morphemes such as prefixes, suffixes, and roots) and common spelling rules. The phrase “Orton-Gillingham approach” refers to the structured, sequential, multisensory techniques established by Dr. Orton and Ms. Gillingham and their colleagues.
What is the rationale behind multisensory teaching?

Children with dyslexia often exhibit weaknesses in auditory and/or visual processing. They may have weak phonemic awareness, meaning they are unaware of the role sounds play in words. They have difficulty rhyming words, blending sounds to make words, or segmenting words into sounds. They may also have difficulty acquiring a sight vocabulary. That is, dyslexic children do not learn the sight words expected in the primary grades. In general, they do not pick up the alphabetic code or system. When taught by a multisensory approach, children have the advantage of learning alphabetic patterns and words by utilizing all three pathways. Orton suggested that teaching the “fundamentals of phonic association with letter forms both visually presented and reproduced in writing, until the correct associations were built up” would benefit students of all ages.
Is there solid evidence that multisensory teaching is effective for children with dyslexia?

There is a growing body of evidence supporting multisensory teaching. Current research, much of it supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), converges on the efficacy of explicit structured language teaching for children with dyslexia. Young children in structured, sequential, multisensory intervention programs, who were also trained in phonemic awareness, made significant gains in decoding skills. These multisensory approaches used direct, explicit teaching of letter-sound relationships, syllable patterns, and meaning word parts. Studies in clinical settings showed similar results for a wide range of ages and abilities.


Dyslexia and its challenges discussed

Dyslexia and its challenges discussed

KARACHI, Oct 14: The concluding day of the 28th SPELT International Conference-2012 — Rainbows of ELT — at the Habib Public School on Sunday had so many wonderful workshops on offer that it became difficult to choose which ones to attend as they were running simultaneously.

The English language teachers attending the conference faced this dilemma right from the morning’s plenary sessions to the closing sessions in the afternoon. Still one workshop that deserved special mention was the one conducted by Orton-Gillingham practitioners Fehmina Khan and Faiza Faisal called ‘Dyslexia — A Bridge Some Have to Cross’.

Both the teachers used the Orton-Gillingham approach with their dyslexic students at the Centre for Assessment and Remedial Education (CARE).

The approach itself is thus named due to the joint study contributions of Samuel T. Orton (1879-1948), a neuropsychiatrist and pathologist and Anna Gillingham (1878-1963), an educator and psychologist. “Dyslexia is just one kind of learning disability. It is not that dyslexics are below average students. In fact they are highly intelligent people. But since everyone is unique, they happen to have their own different ways of learning,” explained the specialist teachers during the workshop.

“Children with dyslexia have no problem in gaining knowledge but they need to break the code of reading and writing, which may take them a while,” said Fehmina Khan.

“There are several things that can help a teacher identify a child with dyslexia. Preschool signs include delayed speech, difficulty in memorising nursery rhymes, challenges in recognising different colours and shapes, having trouble in learning the days of week and mixing up syllables in long words. And if all that goes unchecked, a child is usually diagnosed between the age of eight and 11 years when the learning challenges increase in elementary school, or even in high school sometimes when along with the previous symptoms the student will be getting poor grades, have short attention spans or have trouble with spellings and even expressing themselves”.

She said with dyslexics it was very obvious that they were smart, but they were still not achieving much with all that intelligence and no real physical problem.

Ms Khan shared a few myths about dyslexia such as more boys than girls were dyslexic; dyslexia only existed when working with the English language and that it was a lifelong disorder.

About its causes the teacher said that it was not very clear as to what exactly caused dyslexia but it did run in families.

“Fifteen to 20 per cent of the world population has reading difficulty and 85 per cent of this 15 to 20 per cent are dyslexics,” she said.

Looking at dyslexia scientifically, Ms Khan displayed through illustrations in her presentation normal brain activity where the work was broken down into three parts with one portion of the brain concentrating on reading, other working on discriminating sounds while the other one taking in visual details. “In contrast there is only one part of the brain of a dyslexic person doing all these three things. And when one area is doing everything, there is major confusion,” Ms Khan explained. “And with famous people and high achievers such as John F. Kennedy, Winston Churchill, Albert Einstein, Tom Cruise, Richard Branson, etc, all suffering from dyslexia, you cannot say that dyslexics are dumb or stupid as the ones mentioned were and are extremely bright individuals,” the other expert teacher, Faiza Faisal, said.

“The good news is that dyslexics can be taught how to read and write, though in a different way of specialised teaching which includes phoneme and phonological awareness, sound-symbol awareness, syllable instruction, morphology and syntax,” she said.

“Meanwhile, when parents are told that their child has this condition: It is no good to go into denial. Some schools with remedial classes can help, but basically the parents, teachers and schools together can bring about a positive change in a dyslexic student”.

The final day of the conference also included the launching ceremony of SPELT founder Zakia Sarwar’s book, English Language Education in South Asia: From Policy to Pedagogy and a dramatic performance on stage by students from the University of Karachi.

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